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The phenomenon used to be called psychopathology or antisocial disorder; is the term today dissocial personality disorder common. People suffering from it disregard the rights of other people; they are violent and without self-control. Your own safety is as unimportant to them as the safety of others. They defraud and break laws to meet their needs; they show neither fear nor remorse.
Dissocial Personality Disorder: Brief Overview
Together with the histronic and narcissistic personality disorder, dissociality forms the main group B among the personality disorders. These disorders are characterized by the characteristics "dramatic", "emotional" and "moody". Here is a brief overview of the symptoms:
- Symptoms: aggressive behavior, violence, tendency to commit crimes, disregard for social norms, irresponsibility, quick irritability, impulsive action, low frustration threshold, lack of empathy, constant search for excitement and variety, manipulative interaction with other people, all actions are at your own advantage.
- distribution: Around three to seven percent of all men and one to two percent of all women have a dissocial character.
- therapy: Affected people are often unreasonable, which makes treatment difficult. Antidepressants and mood stabilizers can relieve symptoms in some cases. Cognitive-behavioral therapy can help with insight. If the disorder is recognized in childhood and adolescence, the chances of recovery are better.
The dissocial character
“Psychopaths are social predators that ruthlessly plow their way through life with charm and manipulation, leaving behind a wide swath of broken hearts, disappointed expectations and pillaged wallets. They completely lack a conscience and compassion for other people, and so they selfishly take what they desire and do what they want. (...) Your stunned victims are desperately asking, "Who are these people?" Robert D. Hare, Canadian psychologist
As children, they cut frogs' legs off; they lurk on the way to school to steal pocket money from others; they force their sister to eat moldy bread - some victims do not shy away from acts of violence or even murder.
The pathology is characterized by a lack of empathy for other people and a low tolerance for frustration: these patients react to disappointments with violence. They also accuse others and do not learn from their wrong behavior. On the contrary: those who are disturbed find rational explanations for their violent behavior - whoever looks at them is to blame for being in the hospital.
This inability to empathy has a genetic disposition on the one hand, but also arises from trauma and experience of violence. One percent of women and three percent of men are affected. The fewest people who are incapable of empathy become serious criminals; however, many of them are known for crimes such as assault and extortion - and there are even more legal ways to live out their disorder: from demagogues who rage against minorities to economic bosses who crush competitors to dust.
A personality disorder shows itself as a rigid reaction to changing situations, in relationships and work as well as in public life. Such behavior deviates significantly and permanently from the majority of the social environment.
Such a disturbed person does not empathize with other people; he is incapable of lasting relationships, but has no problem entering into them. It resolves conflicts with violence. He has no guilt and does not learn from bad experiences, especially punishments.
“When asked if he had any feelings of remorse for an armed robbery, the victim of which had to spend three months in the hospital with stab wounds, one of our test subjects replied:“ Let's stick to the facts! He's been in the hospital for a few months while I scour here. I cut him open a little, but if I had wanted to kill him I would have cut his throat. That's how I am; I was still nice to him. ”When asked whether he regretted any of his crimes, he replied:“ I have no regrets. Nothing can be undone; there must have been good reasons at the time and that's why I did it. " Robert D. Hare on a dissocial offender
Dissocially disturbed people in their purest form are ideal habit criminals. The diagnosis is important for forensic psychiatry - because it determines whether the person is guilty. Checklists help to identify the characteristics of dissocial people. These include: lack of impulse control, inability to self-reflect, cold feeling and egocentricity. Dissocial people are not only susceptible to criminal behavior - they also mostly relapse.
Robert D. Hare writes: “Considering their eloquence and the ease with which lies come out of their lips, it is not surprising that psychopaths successfully cheat, lie, cheat, trick and manipulate their fellow human beings, without this for nothing to have the slightest remorse. They often describe themselves straightforwardly as swindlers or tricksters. Her statements betray her belief that the world was made up of "givers and takers," hunters and victims, and that it would be stupid not to take advantage of others' weaknesses. "
The professional community recognizes two characteristics of the dissocial that put them at risk of committing serious crimes: on the one hand, they fear no punishments; on the other hand, they feel no compassion and harm people without scruples.
For dissocial people, weakness means the right to harm others. Robert D. Hare writes: “Psychopaths mostly see fellow human beings only as objects that they can use to satisfy their own needs. Weak and vulnerable people - who mock them instead of feeling sorry for them - are their favorite targets. "There is nobody in the psychopath's universe who is just weak," wrote psychologist Robert Rieber. "If you are weak, you are also a weakling - someone who challenges it to be exploited."
Criminalists in Canada and the United States identify criminals suffering from this disorder as follows: Charming liars with explosive self-esteem; they are greedy for experiences and at the same time constantly bored; manipulate it as a life strategy; her feelings are superficial and played; their lifestyle is parasitic, they suck others out, and they know and want that too; they are promiscuous, sexual relationships only serve to satisfy themselves; they have neither long-term nor realistic goals; they take no responsibility for their actions; they disregard requirements, values and norms; they become criminals at an early age, and they are serial offenders even when they are young.
Dissocial criminals play down their actions. Hare reports: “A prisoner with a very high score on the psychopathy checklist claimed that his crimes had actually had a positive impact on the victims. “The next day I could read about one of my pranks in the newspaper - a robbery or a rape. Interviews with the victims were printed - they were in the newspaper! Women have often said nice things about me that I am very polite and considerate, very conscientious. I wasn't violent to them, okay? Some even thanked me. ”
All kinds of disturbed or wrong tracks?
Just as our body can get sick several times, for example cardiovascular or gastrointestinal, our psyche sometimes suffers multiple times; we then speak of co-morbidity: dissocial disorders sometimes go hand in hand with narcissism, borderline symptoms, but also with alcohol and drug addiction. Likewise, there are sufferers who experience schizophrenic psychoses or manic highs.
Conversely, delinquent behavior does not necessarily mean a dissocial disorder. Bipolar or paranoid schizophrenics also behave dissocially in their relapses, but without suffering from the so-called disorder.
The person concerned must therefore be analyzed in detail. Is drug addiction at the beginning of dissocial behavior? Or does the client abuse substances as a result of his disturbed personality?
First, other disturbed people also show elements of this behavior: Drug sufferers also lie and steal; Autistic people are equally limited in their empathy; Bipolar people act just as irresponsibly in a mania; Narcissists also suck out their fellow human beings; Borderliners also sometimes have no sympathy.
But narcissistically disturbed people mostly have their impulses well under control; Borderliners sometimes even develop an increased sympathy for the suffering of their fellow human beings, and bipolar people only behave irresponsibly in their mania. Disorders can also mix: serial killer Ted Bundy, for example, suffered from both dissocial and narcissistic personality disorders.
However, a lack of compassion does not mean that those affected do not perceive the feelings of others - on the contrary. Those who are dissocially disturbed have a “killer instinct”: they read the feelings of their fellow human beings, but decouple them from their own feelings. The brains of healthy people activate the same circuits when others are happy, mourned or angry. Not so the dissocial; he sees the feelings of others, but his brain does not activate these nerve networks.
Antisocial behavior: examples
Former FBI agent Joe Navarro released a "checklist" for dissocial character (US psychiatrists refer to these people as anti-social personality or "psychopaths"). Navarro is a globally recognized expert in body language; critical social psychology, which for example looks at the structural violence of American society as a motor for the dissocial character, is not his business.
His list is therefore to be enjoyed with caution: a black man who comes into conflict with the judiciary as a child is not dissocial in a racist society; a marginalized in a capitalist economy is not dissocial because he steals in the store to feed his family. Even criminals who follow a "crook honor" probably do not suffer from this disorder.
Navarro says he cares about the victims, not the perpetrators. That is why his profiles of those affected look like woodcuts. Here too there are nuances. The fact that a large number of criminals have a dissocial disorder does not mean that every victim becomes a criminal, but only that the risk is great.
For example, a client went into therapy because his partner was shocked that the death of a friend's father did not trigger feelings. She discussed it with him, and he told her that he had never felt pity in general; he even doubted that there was this feeling. He could recognize feelings based on other people's faces and also assess them cognitively. He would understand that his friend was crying after his father's death, but he did not feel affected. Never, never and never with anyone. The diagnosis was: dissociative personality disorder. The victim never became a criminal. He works as a tattoo artist, has been married for many years, has a child and his colleagues know him as a friendly person; some are only irritated by his "empty look".
In order to recognize dangerous forms of dissocial behavior, Navarro's theses are nevertheless important. Among other things, he mentions the following features:
The person concerned disregards the rights of others and manipulates them to do things for them that give them advantages. As a child, he had trouble with the judiciary. He is self-centered and thinks that he can do what he wants, even if it harms others. He is proud to have cheated on people and left women sitting; he brags about such "heroic deeds". He likes to lie and often, even when it is not necessary. Rules apply to others, not to him. It breaks the law as well as the rules of social behavior.
He has a sixth sense for the weaknesses of others and takes advantage of them. He knows no regrets; the suffering of others is equally important to him. If he is convicted, he blames others for his actions: the circumstances, the family or the victim. He wants to rule over others. Others find him "obnoxious" and "cold-hearted".
He bumps into strangers, insults them, or stares to provoke them. He answers criticism with revenge. At school he was known as a bully. He loves to drag other people's feelings into the dirt. The dissocial creeps up trust to exploit others. He uses others to finance him, to lie for him or to give him alibis. He started fires early that put people and animals at risk.
For him, life means surviving the fittest. The person concerned collects criminal records like stamps. He acquires false identities, pretends to be a professor, police officer, etc. in order to gain power or rob people. He cheats on others for money, property and valuables. He tortures animals and children. It expresses contempt for people - in words, gestures and facial expressions.
He looks arrogant without doing anything. He doesn't stick to agreements, doesn't make appointments, but always has an excuse. He stages psychological games to harass others. He procures sex with violence and rationalizes it: "Women want this ..." He overestimates his skills and underestimates others. He treats addicts like slaves. It is financed through petty crime.
He persuades others to take prohibited actions and has them bear the consequences. He dominates others, their time, their body and their psyche in order to profit from it. It destroys the property of others for fun. Wherever he appears, there is a crash. He intimidates others to get his will.
When he "regrets" his actions, he looks disingenuous. After crimes, he presents himself as the real victim. He demands that others take care of him, but he doesn't give it back.
He flies out of all jobs, piles up debt, and his relationships fail. He repels others through his arrogance. He uses his cold gaze to intimidate or deter others. As a boss, he demands that his employees break the law or manipulate files. He hides parts of his past. He prevents manipulated persons from seeking contact with friends and relatives.
He does not avoid arguments, risks life and limb (of himself and others). He threatens and abuses siblings, parents and friends; he steals from his parents, mortgages and sells their property. Others react physically to him: they get goose bumps and the stomach contracts.
He is enthusiastic about torture, pain, serial killers and all forms of violence; for example, he collects splatter films or watches relevant YouTube videos for nights. For him, women are objects that he calls "hookers"; he has often molested children. He is often a multiple father with different women, but does not take care of the children. He justifies cruel behavior with the sentence: "He deserved it."
He was bailed out of custody and left the relatives on the damage. He borrows money but never pays it back. He beats his wife and children, who fear his closeness. He brags about killing someone or trying to kill someone; he bathes in details: "I cut off his head ..."
If his children are with him, he does not take them to the doctor, do not buy food or drive them to school. He changed his place of residence to escape the police and creditors. Sex has nothing to do with love, he is considered a sadist in bed; he often consumes violent porn. His ex-girlfriends loathe him. He justifies violence against his children: "He needs it."
His friends are red light thugs, pimps or drug dealers. He sells stolen goods and hoarding illegal weapons. Everything has to be done the way he wants; otherwise he will be angry. He often speaks of his "devilish side".
Such disorders of social behavior must have been recognizable before the age of 15 in order to speak of a dissocial personality disorder.
Today, research suspects genetic as well as social causes, more precisely: The genetic makeup only has an effect if it is encouraged by a negative environment. Empathy and fearlessness, as well as a lack of ethics, are manifested in abnormalities in the brain: the amaygdala, hippocampus and the superior temporal gyrus are damaged, and fear and compassion develop in these brain regions. The forehead near the eye socket stores the information to understand the importance of reward and punishment.
Research into war injuries in which this area of the brain is damaged shows that they lose the ability to assess the "wages" and sanctions that result from their actions - contrary to their original perception that low serotonin levels promote Aggressiveness, hormones like testosterone and vasopressin as well. Dissocially disturbed people do not have this ability either, as evidenced by their structural and functional development of images in this region of the brain.
Your skin conductance reactions are reduced and get used to strong stimuli faster. Dissocially disturbed people have a reduced conditioned fear reaction in the autonomic nervous system. That sounds abstract; in simple terms it means: people learn from experience. Anyone who touched a hot stove as a child “burns” the negative experience into their brains and in a similar situation they shy away from it. The organism triggers fear and connects it to a cause. We also learn in society.
Those affected, on the other hand, lack the brain functions to develop this fear and to couple it to a cause. Not only do they lack compassion for others, they also lack sensitivity for themselves. They need stronger stimuli than normal-sensitive people and look for them.
However, this genetic disposition only sustainably damages behavior if a destroyed childhood is added. Affected people almost always come from childhood full of violence and without love. Every child who is neglected suffers from it and bears the consequences in later life; however, if this child has an inherited social behavior disorder, the consequences will be catastrophic.
This becomes particularly clear with an extreme form of criminals; the majority have this disorder - they are serial killers. Serial killers were often noticed in their childhood by cruelty to animals. Arson, extortion and the first violence against people can also be proven.
They often come from a social environment that has been characterized by sexual abuse and violence. Lack of physical contact, loveless mothers, beating fathers, dysfunctional families, and drug problems at home often appear in serial killers' biographies; missing fathers, isolation in later childhood, early feelings of guilt through sexual projections of the mothers onto the children are widespread.
The father of the boy murderer Fritz Haarmann, for example, was notorious - as a thug and drunkard. "Quarrelsome and gnitterisch," Theodor Lessing saw in him the "archetype of an octopus and unwilling penny pincher." In the descent of the old town of Hanover, the meeting place of the lost and alcoholic, this swamp flower blossomed. Retired early, the miser lived on the fortune of his wife Johanne. Father and son kept threatening each other. The father wanted to put the son in the madhouse - the son wanted to take the father to the penitentiary. The father hit the son, the son beat the father. Both accused themselves of making murder plans against the other. The two, however, took out third parties together and relieved each other in court in order to then attack each other again.
The mother of the "Sacramento Vampire" who drank the blood of his victims, Richard Trenton Chase, suffered from schizophrenia. She was unable to lovingly take care of her son. The father of the thirty-three-fold murderer John Gacy came home, sat in the armchair, got drunk, and then hit the boy drunk. The mother of the extremely brutal Ed Kemper blamed her son for every mishap.
Terror is often hidden behind an external “ideal world”. So Ed Kemper's mother had a prestigious position at the university. The psychological violence against her son was carried out behind closed doors.
A key is subliminal sexuality in the aggression of parents of serial killers towards their children. Not every serial killer is sexually motivated; but sexually motivated serial killers are unable to maintain balanced relationships with peers and peers. They translate this inability into sexualized murders. This also applies to some soldiers in war, but the serial killer looks for his victims alone - in a civil society.
Robert Ressler, a pioneer in the profiling of serial killers, discussed a coincidence of circumstances: At the beginning there are the childhood problems described. Add to that the rejection by schoolmates, the failure of social services, marginalization in the neighborhood and an inability to develop sexually integrated - this is almost a profile for a possible serial killer.
Negative factors promote whether children with dissocial patterns develop a full-blown personality disorder. The frequent change of caregivers before the age of 11 can decide whether someone gets on the wrong track or not. Parents who do not perceive their child's adapted reactions but severely punish even the smallest "offense" promote anti-social behavior. The child gets used to punishments, but does not get to know balanced social relationships as a difference to these punishments. At some point it no longer fears the punishments because it doesn't know the alternative. The punishment even becomes a negative recognition; the child learns to draw attention to itself with dissocial behavior.
Children with disturbed social behavior react aggressively to others because they can hardly empathize with them. That is why they perceive them as enemies.
The facility for dissocial behavior is promoted by criminal behavior and psychological problems of the parents. There are many reasons for this: a criminal father is neither a good role model nor can he look after the child when he is in prison. Often, however, the father also has a dissocial personality disorder.
The dissocial personality indicates that those affected disregard social norms. Only some become serious criminals. Some, on the other hand, become “successful”: they take high risks, be it as a professional or as an investment banker.
Disrupted social behavior
Child psychiatry knows, as disturbed social behavior of children, antisocial actions such as notorious lying, stealing from other children, targeted humiliation of other children, beating, bullying and hard forms of violence, for example using objects as weapons.
Half of such striking children later integrate socially, the other half retain their behavior as adults. When the antisocial symptoms solidify, a dissocial personality disorder can develop.
At least in retrospect, it can be clarified who is at risk. Two thirds of dissocially disturbed clients showed three or more symptoms of the disorder before the age of 12. First of all, the risk factors include gender; because men tend to lead their problems to the outside, women tend to focus on the inside. Children who stand out early are so-called "early starters", while those who only start with anti-social behavior as adolescents are of the "late-onset type". First of all, the early starters suffer from comorbidity, especially mental deficits - they are difficult to articulate and can hardly store information in their memory; second, they are at greater risk of their behavior becoming a personality disorder.
Adoption and twin studies have shown that genetic disposition is essential. Biochemical, neurophysiological and psychophysiological findings prove biological markers as "vulnerability factors" for dissocial behavior.
The same applies to children and teenagers. Dissocial behavior does not mean that a child occasionally tells the untruth or that boys "knock". It also does not mean that children and adolescents break taboos to define themselves against the adult world. It also does not mean that someone behaves badly according to bourgeois standards, i.e. does not sit at the table with folded hands.
Anyone who behaves dissocially, whether as a child, adolescent or adult, harms others without regretting it, deceives as a life practice, and behaves antisocially in different areas of life: For example, a member of a youth gang who passes questionable tests of courage to face his Shining a clique is not anti-social but social, because it is about integrating into the group. Dissocial people, on the other hand, are just as anti-social to classmates as to teachers, to enemies as well as to enemies.
With mentally disturbed people who endanger others and cause harm to others, it is difficult to understand them as sufferers. But the dissocially disturbed person suffers from his illness. Not only are victims of violence more involved than normal people, they also die more often from violence, and they end up more likely to commit suicide.
The dissocial is thus in a vicious cycle. If he gave up his "dominance" and that means giving in, he would have to be "instructed". However, his disturbance means that he does not understand why he should.
In extreme cases, a dissocially disturbed person harms his fellow human beings to a great extent. Today, therapy focuses on preventing. Genetically predisposed and socially neglected people need targeted support. A trusted person can perhaps set the course for positive development. This "fatherly friend" must be aware of his responsibility: he must not expect a quick recovery, the client will always disappoint him; he himself needs contacts who support him so that he does not resign.
In the best case, this caregiver is emotionally intelligent, has many years of experience in the job, is just as relational as living in stable relationships, structured when studying and socially competent in everyday life. Because a person with a genetic predisposition to a dissocial disorder is not automatically a monster: Even if his empathy is impaired, he still learns through experience in his environment; in addition, extreme cases, lacking all fear and empathy, are rare among the impaired.
Those affected are also multi-layered people, a (criminal) environment in which their disorder appears to be an advantage can lead to disaster - in the best case, a socially stable environment leads to a balanced mix of behavior.
Someone who feels little compassion may still avoid dissocial actions if they mean disadvantages. Even if he learns social behavior like mathematical formulas, he can still learn it. If the lack of empathy is biological, the therapist can neither achieve it with values and norms nor with sanctions. It is crucial, particularly in the case of extremely dissocial people, to make them aware of the consequences of their actions - for example, by analyzing the thoughts with them beforehand before an act of violence.
In addition, sufferers can learn by breaking through their guilt defense. To do this, he must repeatedly come across the client as being responsible for the dispute and the violence; the disturbed personifies his actions - here the therapist has to put a stop to it.
Anti-aggression training promises success. Here, those affected learn with role-playing games and video technology how to recognize problems and how to find non-violent solutions. In particular, the therapist leads the client to great designs - into the future and life. The victim may not develop compassion for his victim, but a house with a garden is also a better prospect of prison for him.
If the "cat is already out of the bag", that is to say those affected have committed the first bodily harm, the first break-in or the first deception, then the therapist works retrospectively on which chain of behavior led to the deed. Every single situation along the way is analyzed and worked through, and the perpetrator learns alternative ways to act. The successes with “hard” dissocial people are extremely low.
However, a study from Australia was successful in cold unemotional children - the potential dissocial perpetrators from later. Die Eltern dieser Kinder sollten ihnen alle zehn Minuten in die Augen blicken und ihnen mit sanfter Stimme sagen: „Ich hab dich lieb.“ Sechs Monate später konnten die Kinder in den Gesichtern der Eltern Emotionen erkennen. Das lieferte einen Beleg dafür, dass Empathie auch bei biologisch Beeinträchtigten lernbar ist.
Eine dissoziale Persönlichkeit ist eine psychische Störung, so wie paranoide Schizophrenie oder Bipolarität. Sind Betroffene also schuldunfähig? So einfach ist es nicht.
Ein Täter gilt dann als schuldunfähig, wenn er wegen einer „schweren seelischen Abartigkeit“ nicht Herr seiner Handlungen ist. Schwere seelische Abhängigkeit bedeutet: Stereotypes Verhalten, massive Probleme in Beziehungen, affektive Auffälligkeit, permanente Verhaltensprobleme, starre Denkmuster, gestörte Wahrnehmung der Realität.
Über die Schuldfähigkeit entscheidet indessen, ob der Täter während, bzw. unmittelbar vor der Tat seine Handlungen steuern konnte. Die Störung macht den Delinquenten zum Beispiel besonders verführbar, eine Straftat zu begehen. Schuld mindernd wirkt sich die Störung jedoch nur aus, wenn die Impulskontrolle die gesamte Persönlichkeit prägt.
Schuld mindernd wirken Aspekte, die zur Eskalation eines Konfliktes führten: Alkohol- oder Drogenrausch, eine von Impulsen bestimmte Verhaltenskette bei der Tat, und eine direkte Verbindung zwischen der Tat und der Persönlichkeitsstörung.
Für die Schuldfähigkeit sprechen hingegen eine planvolle Tat, die Fähigkeit, zu warten, komplexe Handlungen in aufeinander abgestimmten Schritten, das systematische Verwischen von Spuren, Alibis zu verschaffen, und flexible Handlungsoptionen. Wenn der Betroffene also in einer vergleichbaren Situation dieses Delikt nicht beging, spricht das für seine Schuldfähigkeit.
Die Störung allein mindert die Schuld also nicht. Ein Berufsverbrecher kann zum Beispiel durch seine genetisch und soziale Vorbelastung für diesen Weg besonders geeignet sein: Wenn er jedoch organisiert Menschen erpresst, Frauen in die Prostitution zwingt oder als Auftragsmörder arbeitet, ist er trotzdem schuldig.
Die Diskussion über den „freien Willen“ der Betroffenen beginnt jedoch gerade erst. Die biologische Perspektive, also die Erkenntnisse über die genetisch beeinträchtigten Hirnfunktionen dürfte zumindest die „Charakterschuld“ in einem anderen Licht erscheinen lassen.
„Ich wäre überrascht, wenn nicht jeder Politiker deutlich weiter oben auf der Psychopathenskala rangieren würde als der Durchschnittsmensch.“ Der Psychologe Kevin Dutton
Menschen mit dieser Störung sind drei- bis viermal häufiger in Machtpositionen zu finden als im Rest der Bevölkerung. Das ist kein Zufall: Sie sind kalt, können aber die Gefühle Anderer lesen; sie manipulieren ohne Gewissen, können also die „Zügel in der Hand halten“; sie werden nicht verletzlich, weil sie sich in Liebesbeziehungen verstricken; sie ordnen schnell zu, wer von Vorteil ist und wer nicht, ohne dabei von Mitgefühl gebremst zu werden. Andere Menschen sind für sie Werkzeuge; wenn sie sich angegriffen fühlen, schlagen sie mit allen Mitteln zurück. Das alles gilt im Vertrieb, bei Versicherungen und im Bank-Management als Führungs-Qualität. Genau diese Brachen ziehen Betroffene an: Es geht um viel Geld und spontane Entscheidungen.
Auch Politiker profitieren von dieser Störung. Der Psychologe Jens Hoffmann erkennt diese Studie bei Jörg Haider ebenso wie bei Silvio Berlusconi und abgeschwächt bei George Bush Junior. Mischt sich die dissoziale mit der narzisstischen Störung, dann haben wir einen prototypischen Diktator.
Erich Fromm erkannte bei Hitler einen das Leben hassenden Charakter und sah dessen Ideologie als Ausdruck davon. Die Vernichtung eines konstruierten Feindes und Macht über Leben und Tod ist Motor faschistischer Weltanschauung. Ob zum Beispiel die NSU-Killer Böhmhardt und Mundlos die mörderische Pathologie zur faschistischen Ideologie trieb oder die Ideologie zum Mord lässt sich nicht scharf trennen.
Faschismus ermöglicht es Dissozialen, ihre Störung umzusetzen. Mitleidlosigkeit ist in der Nazi-Ideologie erklärtes Ziel. Gehirnwäsche und das „Abrichten zum Töten“ belegen, dass den meisten Menschen die Empathie erst zerstört werden muss. Dagegen bildeten den Kern der NS-Kampfverbände, über die sich heutige Neonazis definieren, Männer, deren Psyche dem Töten entsprach.
Viele charismatische Herrscher der Geschichte hatten vermutlich eine dissoziative Störung – auch wenn sich aus der Distanz heraus schwerlich eine Diagnose treffen lässt.
Die genetische Grundlage der Störung, also die eingeschränkte Empathie und Angstfreiheit, kann in der Evolution sinnvoll gewesen sein. In Extremsituationen, also gegenüber wilden Tieren und menschlichen Feinden waren furchtlose Charaktere, die kein Mitgefühl in ihren Entscheidungen bremste, von Vorteil – vielleicht waren sie sogar notwendig, auch wenn ihre Tyrannei das soziale Leben in der Gruppe beeinträchtigte.
Jens Hoffmann sieht die meisten Führungskräfte als „subklinische Dissoziale“. Mut, Leistungsbereitschaft ohne Rücksicht auf sich und Andere, Durchsetzungskraft, Machtbesessenheit und mangelndes Schuldbewusstsein sind geradezu Top-Skills für eine Bewerbung im Management. Oberflächlicher Charme und emotionale Kälte kommen hinzu. Angstfrei und gefühlskalt kommen sie mit Stress gut zurecht. Sie haben kein Problem, Mitarbeiter zu feuern, weil es sie nicht berührt.
Wenn Betroffene nach oben gekommen sind, ist es schwer, sie zu bremsen. Die Mitarbeiter in den unteren Hierarchien leiden unter der Tyrannei; die Spitze bekommt wenig mit. Übt jemand Kritik, spielt der Gestörte sein Repertoire von Manipulation und Rufmord aus. Er isoliert den Kritiker von seinem Team, er strukturiert ganze Abteilungen um und suggeriert dem Leidenden, dass mit „ihm etwas nicht stimmt“. Seine Vorgesetzten manipuliert der Dissoziale ebenfalls; er heuchelt ihnen sogar Empathie für die Probleme der Firma vor.
Wer so jemand als Chef hat, muss sich selbst schützen. Er darf keine Schwäche zeigen und nicht versuchen, den Chef zu ändern. Er sollte sich Verbündete suchen, den Betriebsrat und die Personalabteilung informieren, sowie das Verhalten des Vorgesetzten minutiös belegen. In der Konsequenz sollte er sich aber einen Arbeitsplatz suchen, an dem Demokratie und Mitarbeiterrechte es Tyrannen schwer machen. (Dr. Utz Anhalt)
Author and source information
This text corresponds to the specifications of the medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical doctors.
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- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik und Nervenheilkunde: S2- Leitlinie für Persönlichkeitsstörungen, Stand: 2009, dgppn.de
- Rainer Sachse: Persönlichkeitsstörungen verstehen: Zum Umgang mit schwierigen Klienten, Psychiatrie Verlag, 10. Auflage, 2014
ICD-Codes für diese Krankheit:F60ICD-Codes sind international gültige Verschlüsselungen für medizinische Diagnosen. You can find yourself e.g. in doctor's letters or on disability certificates.